Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
The attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) is a behavioral syndrome with neurobiological bases and a strong genetic component and is a highly prevalent disorder that is estimated, affects between 5 and 10% of the infant – youth to be about 3 times more common in males. ADHD have not been demonstrated differences between different geographic, cultural groups and socioeconomic levels.
It is a neurological behavioral disorder characterized by moderate to severe distractibility, short attention span, restlessness, emotional instability and impulsive behaviors. It has a very high response to treatment, although accompanied by high rates of psychiatric co morbidity. Typically, symptoms worsen in situations that require attention or sustained mental effort or that lack intrinsic appeal or novelty (e.g., Listen to teacher in class, do homework, listen to or read long texts, or working on monotonous or repetitive tasks).
This neurobiological dysfunction was first recognized in childhood. However as far as that was better understood, recognized its chronic nature, as it persists and manifests itself beyond adolescence. Studies of long-term monitoring have shown that between 60 and 75% of children with ADHD continues to have symptoms into adulthood.
Historically, this disease has received different characterizations and countless denominations, making it difficult queries in the literature.
This is a neurobehavioral disorder of primarily genetic origin. Have been demonstrated hereditary factors (i.e., inherited, not acquired in the course of life) by 80% of cases. Studies show that there is a familial disorder that does not occur through adoptive relationships. In contrast, it is noteworthy that the estimated contribution of non-hereditary factors all cases of ADHD is only 20%. To explain this minority of cases has been proposed intervention of cases multi-factorial, involving genetic factors but also in combination with environmental factors. The influence of congenital causes that act during gestation not inherited, with the participation of genetic or environmental factors in varying proportions. In that sense, it was established that smoking rates among women with ADHD are several times higher than in the general population. And because of this, these women are also more likely to smoke during pregnancy as a corollary; the presence of ADHD in the unborn child again refers to genetic factors.
ADHD in daily life:
Children with ADHD start walking early, but more to go what they do is run “like they have a motor inside,” some parents concerned. In the beginning students have problems with literacy and math skills that require an effort of concentration longer.
Some activities associated with ADHD result of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: failing to maintain attention to details or making careless mistakes at work, make nervous movements with hands or feet or squirming in his seat, having difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or fun activities, getting into situations where they are expected to remain seated, not listening when spoken to directly, or feel restless and uneasy, not follow instructions and fails to finish the job successfully, the difficulty involved Calm activities in their leisure time or to organize tasks and activities, the feeling of being “up” or “driven by a motor”, the desire to avoid jobs that require sustained mental effort, talking excessively, losing things necessary for tasks and activities, answering abruptly before the end of ask you something, easy distractibility, impatience to wait your turn, the neglect of their daily duties or interruption in what others are doing are characteristic features.
Upon reaching adulthood, able to accommodate the individual has ADHD to real life. While the characteristics of ADHD have been fully referenced with respect to minors, is often noted that there are no sufficient studies on adults. However some of these features in adults are:
* Decreased academic and professional performance.
* Difficulties in social and emotional development: Friends unstable, short-lived relationships.
* Conflicting Behaviors.
* Addiction to toxic substances: Adults suffer from addictions to cocaine, cannabis and other substances with ADHD.
* Depressive Symptoms: due to emotional deprivation, labor and education above and the sense of failure or vocational school.
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Attention Deficit Disorder